How Quality PCBs Are Assembled At

With the increasing demands in the electronic industry, we need more reliable tech companies to ensure quality and affordability in every tech product offered in the market today. Speaking of reliable company, is one of the few trusted brands that you can depend on when it comes to printed circuit boards for your manufacturing needs. Whether you are simply a hobbyist or a huge tech business in the country, you need to make sure that you are partnering with the right PCB provider for better quality products.

Truth is making PCBs is a daunting job since it requires certain skills, knowledge and tools to produce the ideal output needed by various applications these days. Today, however, we will be discussing the case of PCB manufacturing for hobbyists and schools. This is just to help you understand the basics of the assembly process while also giving you ideas on how to create these boards. In addition to that, we would like to share with you the specialized skills of our team so that you can also make your manufacturing business a success.

Essential Things to Keep in Mind

Perhaps, we will cover the process of assembling single-sided circuit board particularly the techniques and tools required throughout the course. However, we can actually use similar methods used in double-sided boards since there’s not much difference between the two, but of course, during the plating stage, we need to be extra careful because it can be tricky to apply certain tactics. This is why we want to give you these practical insights to properly guide especially knowing that you are a hobbyist who wants to do things on his own. You can check out our site,, to get the information you need before starting your new project.


You will encounter pricking one side, drilling holes and applying etch resist to secure the connections. The basic concept is to begin with substrate board and use appropriate materials to ensure quality after the whole process. Copper layers are also essential in single- and double-sided PCBs. For excess copper, you can get rid of them to leave the board clean and well organized. Tracks or traces are surely visible within the circuit boards because these are important in repairing the PCB once a problem is spotted; hence, you need to find the right materials to use and the proper ways to assemble the board.

Starting the Work with the Appropriate Tools and Methods

A common material used in most PCB manufacturing works is the fiberglass board. This is also one of the common materials we take advantage of when it comes to achieving product quality and durability. Also, you can benefit from the clean results produced by laser printer method if you really want to create PCBs accurately.

The following are some of the basic steps you can follow if you are learning how to assemble your printed circuit board at home:

1. Draw schematic.

2. Sketch PCB artwork and make sure that the tracks are clean, so you can connect the circuit wires effectively. You can use CAD, a computer program, or pencil in creating the measures. As every connection and component of your schematic is included in the board layout, highlight the traces using a pen.

3. Attach the schematic to the circuit board.

4. Through your schematic, prick the PCB when there is hole needed, but be extra careful in pricking so that you will not create excess holes that are not required in the board. Use a flat, solid surface when working on your PCB to make the process easier.

Printed circuit boards

5. Clean the board using a scouring cleaner usually found in households then dry the PCB carefully to avoid oil or grease.

6. Mark the board when you need to apply copper through special-felt tip pens specifically designed for this process.

7. Dry the PCB thoroughly.

8. Immerse the board in warm “ferric chloride” solution while taking note that this is a bit dangerous.

9. Clear off the etch resist inks with trichloroethane.

10. Drill holes.

11. Polish the board using fine-wire wool.

After doing these steps, check your PCB carefully to see if there are possible problems. This is important before adding the components. Gauge the resistance to prevent short circuit and secure the volts. However, if you think that this is not easy for you to do, you can just buy commercial PCBs to help you get your project done. Visit for additional details regarding how you can make your own circuit board.

The History And Tradition Of Custom Coins

Members of the military returning from deployment out of the country receive challenge coins upon their return. It is one of the many customs in the military service, which forge closer ties within the organization. The carrying of custom coins signifies fellowship and unity among its members. Although the use of challenge coins is proliferating across different groups, its origin remains vague among civilians.

The usual diameter of military coins is 1.5”-2” and depth of 1/10 inch. Coins can vary in shapes such as arrowheads, dog tags, pentagons, and shields. Metals for minting custom coins include bronze, copper, and nickel.

The Ancient civilization of Rome used coins as a reward for its Roman soldiers. When a soldier fights a good battle, he will receive the day’s compensation with an additional coin as his reward. Hence, they often keep the military coin as a token of their valor rather than spend it.

The military history of challenge coins began during the Word War I.:

An affluent officer of the Flying Squadron ordered bronze coins for his team. When German forces seized one of his men, they took all his belongings except for his bronze medallion. Fortunately, the pilot escaped the Germans and fled to France. However, the French army assumed he was an enemy spy and ordered his death. The recognition of his bronze medallion saved him from the execution.

The practice of challenging others to display their custom coins dates back post World War II era in Germany. It evolved from the German local custom of doing the “pfennig checks”. Pfennig is a German coin with the lowest value. You must be able to present pfennig coin during the challenge. Otherwise, you will purchase beers for those with pfennig coins.

Challenge Coin

The Americans applied the concept of “pfennig check” to challenge coins. Challenger needs to slam the coins to begin the challenge. All members will have to present their military coins. Men without their coins will have to buy drinks for the challenger and the rest of the military men. If all the military personnel have their challenge coins, the challenger has to buy everyone their drinks.

One of the most significant secret handshakes took place in 2011 when Robert Gates from the Secretary of Defense visited the military stations in Afghanistan prior to his retirement. During the military tour, he shook hands with several members of the military service. This appeared as a simple gesture of respect, but a secret handshake with a special challenge coin from the Secretary of Defense.

The secret handshake has its beginnings during the 20th century in the Second Boer War between the colonist of South Africa and Great Britain’s troops. The British employed mercenary soldiers who are not eligible for medals. Stories claim that non-commissioned officers would steal the medals awarded to undeserving officers at night. Subsequently, they award these stolen medals to commendable mercenary soldiers through a secret handshake in a public rite. The award is an implied symbol of gratitude.

The Special Forces custom coins became an alternative to the bullet club challenge. Members of the bullet club receive live bullets as an incentive for accomplishing a mission. They are reserved bullet for you as a last resort to an impending defeat. The bullets initially awarded to members were handgun or M16 ammunition. It later evolved into high caliber bullets such as artillery shells and anti-aircraft rounds. To prevent fatal accidents, the military prohibited the awarding of bullets. Instead, they issued Special Forces challenge coins to substitute the bullets.

challenge coins

The challenge coins of Presidents and Vice-Presidents started with Bill Clinton and Dick Cheney. There are several types of Presidential coins minted for the inauguration and commemoration of his government. In addition, customized coin of the administration is available to the public through online or souvenir shops. However, there is a special Presidential coin, which can be distributed only by the President through a handshake. The President hands out the Presidential coin on special events. George Bush reserves his special coin to wounded soldiers from a deployment in the Middle East. President Obama often gives it to outstanding soldiers manning the stairs of Air Force One. Other government officials have their special coins, which they award to deserving people at their discretion.

At present, the use of military coins is no longer limited to recognition of its members. They utilize coins as proof of identification and as collectibles. Occasionally, they award custom coins to people from the non-military sector. It is no longer unusual to see other organizations, maximizing the potentials of customized coins. These coins are unique and lasting tools to display pride in your organization. To know more about the different options you can avail, please check our gallery at

Author Bio:
At are provide custom military coins they are ideal for regarding veterans and current military achievements, valiance, commitment and more.Custom military coins have a recognized history, going back at any rate to World War I.

Types of Golf Balls

To start, what are golf balls?

Golf balls are the tiny balls with the surface covered in dimples. As the name shows, these are balls used to play golf. They are hit around the course using a golf club; the game is considered done when one of the players is able to place his golf ball inside the hole assigned per round. Golf balls weigh just about 1.620 oz, or 45.93 grams. They have a diameter of 1.680 inches or 42.67 mm. Golf standards demand that golf makers follow that measurement. In fact, golf makers, before they are able to sell their golf balls to the public, should be able pass a certain requirement.

This is the testing and approval for a golf ball, done by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews or R&A for short, and the United States Golf Association, or the USGA. These are the two official associations for golf; they work together to create and regularly revise the “Rules of Golf.” This is the official standards rule book of the game; it is made up of the standards set for the adequate range of performance. For example, there is a section on the Rules of Golf which talks about the minimum and maximum allowable golf ball flight characteristics, distance, symmetry, and velocity.

golf ballsIn general, there are three basic types of golf ball available for the player. The first is the recreational ball. As made obvious by its name, it is the golf ball often used during casual or informal games. This is the type of ball often carried by a common golf player. This is also the most known golf ball. This particular type is characterized by having low compression and a reduction in sidespin characteristics. With this, it is often recommended to players who are more comfortable delivering low swing speeds. The speed is considered low when it falls just around 80 to 100 miles per hour.

The other classification of golf ball is the practice ball. Also known as the range ball, this certain type of ball is patterned closely to the recreational ball, but is created as cheaply as possible. It is still durable though, and has the same performance as the common golf ball. It, however, has a shorter flight distance and does not contain certain features that make it appropriate for a casual game. Because of its low price and lack of better flight characteristics, it is best for players who are still training to improve their drives and who often end up losing their balls during the game.

The last of the three common types of golf ball is the best of the bunch. This ball, called the advanced ball, is a multilayered one that is created for professional and highly skilled players. Because it has three or more layers, it is able to produce a higher amount of sidespins, especially when players aim for lofted shots using the wedges. An advanced ball is also very tiring to use for inexperienced players because it requires the player to hit it with an above-average swing speed so that it would compress upon impact.

However, one cannot just hit the advanced ball as strong as he can because the swing speed should be able to match the provided golf ball compression. Matching the two allows the player to maximize the flight distance. Under- or over-compression would only lead to loss of flight distance. In addition, this particular golf ball type is substantially more costly than other types. These pro-level balls are often seen during sanctioned games and professional trainings.

Largest collection of golf balls and other golf equipment with variety of types can be available at

Motivational Speakers

What is a motivational speaker? Motivational speakers are also commonly called as inspirational speakers. As what the name indicates, they deliver speeches with the intention of inspiring and persuading others to change for the better, or to aspire for a common goal. Generally, these speakers are expected to have an expertise in the field or subject they are discussing. They do not only share stories but they also enable their audience to see things from a different perspective.

What is the point of hiring motivational speakers in an event?

Many businesses are facing huge problems which their internal control systems cannot handle anymore. In certain circumstances, they will need the help of some consultants and experts in this field. Sometimes though, problem solving is not enough to resolve issues. Sometimes, morale needs a little boost and in such cases, motivational speakers may help. Sometimes, the employees also need to be rallied to a cause or a goal. These speakers help in injecting the idea of change into the minds of the company’s employees and staffs. In most commerce-related events, the main topic here is “change” and “moving forward” these speakers will help people make a move instead of mourning at one corner about the issue.


Business owners often do this to make their employees and staffs more inspired to do better at work. They want them to wake up and realize that they should change for the better. They want speakers to inflict to their minds that making a way to improve the company is also the right path to the success in their career.

However, motivational speakers are not standing in front of a large amount of people to talk about business and career only. They could also speak about how to be a better husband/wife to your partner, son/daughter to your parents and how to be a good person for the whole world. Topics are not limited. No subject is prohibited during the talk as long as it motivates and encourages people to shift for the better.

Tips to become a motivational speaker:

1.    Knowing your audience to come up with a message.

A good motivational speaker always prepares a great sword for a challenging battle. Most speakers are also good writers. They make a draft of what they need to discuss to their audience. However, they could only make a greet speech if they research about the audience. If you are planning to be one, you need to know your listeners. And then choose a story that can resonate with your audience. Share stories of success, happiness and engagement in better relationships. But most importantly, choose a story that is close to your passion. Your speech will sound convincing if you are really aware of what you are talking about.

2.    Improve your skills.

If you have time to study more, enroll yourself into a school that offers public speaking short-time courses. It will help you feel more comfortable talking to a mass of people in front of you. You should also pay attention to details that need improvements. To track both of your good and bad skills, record yourself and watch it to look for things you need to fix. You can also practice writing speeches. Or perhaps during the talk, use props and equipment to get the attention of your listeners. You do not want the whole event to be boring, do you?

3.    Promote yourself and make a name in the industry.

Most businesses advertise their products to be well known in the country. You can also advertise your speeches and make yourself known to the public. You can start from the bottom and make free public speeches at schools or small organizations. Post and publish materials such as flyers, posters and signs about your brand and expertise.

Great things always come from hard work and determination, and sometimes, from a little inspiration. Detail description about motivational speaker is available on motivational-speaker-success.

Advantages Of Using Lanyards

For us, using lanyards or neck straps has lots of benefits to offer. Although they are popularly known for serving as laces for our identification cards, lanyards have other uses too. Visit our website the-lanyard-factory to get idea about lanyard. We can also use them to hold our mobile phones and car keys. In addition, we can also make customized prints and designs depending on occasions.

With this, a lot of other organizations and companies include words, names and messages on the surface of these straps to serve various purposes.

If the thought of using ordinary cords, clips and pins is still there, then this is the best time to maximize the use of these straps as they can offer a lot of benefits:

Benefits Of Using Lanyards Are :

1. We can organize and secure all our things easily. We may find ourselves spending a lot of time everyday looking for keys or nail clipper inside the drawer. We can avoid wasting our precious time in finding such things if we will attach them to a strap.

Polyester Lanyards

For instance, we can customize these straps with prints like “nail clipper” or “car keys” and attach those items to them so we can easily find the right item inside the drawer. Furthermore, we don’t have to spend much time finding those items inside a car whenever we go out of town because they are already connected to the straps with printed identification. Whenever we are wearing neck straps that hold a particular item as we spend the day outdoors, we will never have to worry about losing that item whether it’s a pen, whistle, mobile phone or flashlight

To make things more organized, we should use different colors of lanyards for coding purposes. We can set up hooks in cabinet doors and hang the straps with attached items around those hooks so that next time, we already know the exact place where to get those items.

2. We tend to become stylish. We can print and customize these neck straps in different colors and designs. Not to mention, we can also make them available in different sizes and lengths. To top it all, we can also choose the type of material or fabric for customizing straps.

In order to become stylish, we have to know the type of straps that complement our fashion sense so that we can express ourselves more. In fact, we can mix and match different set of straps with the type of clothes we wear.

3. We use them for a much easier identification. As part of an of organization, agency or company, whether in public or private sector, we oblige our staff members to wear their IDs inside the event premises at all times. This is done to easily identify the invited guests in case of group picture taking and registrations.

By requiring these straps to be worn around our necks, security personnel can easily identify in just one look if someone isn’t a part of the participating organization. Basically, that’s another purpose why we use neck straps during events – for added security.

4. We can use them for promoting our businesses. Neck straps with the company name printed on them are good promotional materials. We should always consider giving them away to our employees and prospective clients. Since they have a lot of uses, our clients will surely use them for several times.

As customers, they are fond of receiving such items from our company. If we’re able to give away those lanyards to a significant number of people, then that’s already an instant advertisement for us. These people can contribute to our target of reaching wider audiences if they successfully established the brand.

5. They are cost-effective. All of us can afford to buy these straps as investments for promoting our business. Regardless of the firm’s employee size, we can always buy these items in singles at a cheap price. If we want to buy these straps in bulk, then we can save more money which will eventually be used on other productive ventures.

It’s also more practical to go for this item over shirts and mugs due to its two main characteristics: portability and durability. Mugs can break easily if they fell on the floor and shirts require a significant amount of space inside a bag when we travel. A neck strap doesn’t break easily and requires no amount of space when we insert it inside a bag full of items.

Now that we already know the different benefits of wearing/using lanyards, it is time to consider them as a stylish alternative for holding pens, keys and even smart phones. Make it a point to purchase high-quality straps because these can provide added security to our items at all times.

Reasons to Invest in a Long Island Real Estate Property

Long Island is a country with panoramic vistas, cool amenities, and beautiful real estate properties. It is one of the countries in New York. Despite the high prices of Long Island real estate properties, many people are buying homes in the area. If you are planning to live in New York, consider investing in a property located in one of the counties. Here are the reasons to consider investing properties in Long Island.

Property Selections

With a wide array of properties listed, you have many choices. The property listings range from the standard home styles to the most luxurious homes. Each home suits different preferences as to style, comfort, and living conditions.


TransportationAll kinds of public transportation serve Long Island. The island has three major airports plus multiple smaller airports serving local and international tourists. The country also has different public transportations, from railways to buses. As of the moment, Long Island has 10 road crossings that connect the Island with the state of New York. You can find these road crossings in the western east side, near the mainland. The government of Long Island proposes other crossings from various locations along the Nassau County and Suffolk County. However, no immediate plans are in place to make it a reality.

Residence Security

Residence SecurityThe counties employ three different police departments. The New York Police Department patrols the counties, Kings, and Queens while Nassau and Suffolk have their respective police departments. Each of the dozen villages and two cities has its own police sheriff who manages eviction cases, warrant services, and operation of the jail. Thus, the country is secure. Though the police force cannot fully control crimes to happen, Long Island real estate investors and residences are assured of minimal crimes.

Various Recreational Facilities

You can find many recreational facilities in the county. Museums are everywhere on Long Island to keep the artistically-inclined occupied. Sports arenas host different major events to keep the sports fans entertained. In addition, there are nearly a hundred sports clubs found and organized in the country.

Large Selection of Schools

Long Island is home to many schools and colleges. Thus, if you have kids, you have a large selection of schools to enroll them. The country has over 500 public schools. You do not have to send them away when they enter college. The country boasts of more than twenty higher-education schools, both in private and public sector.

Rich Culture

Long Island is a country of different peoples and cultures. Though the majority of the populations are white, Hispanics, Asians, and Afro-Americans compose a large percentage of the population, roughly a 46% of the total population in Long Island. Despite the different races, people are living in harmonious communities.

Beautiful Vistas

Beautiful VistasIf you love beaches, you can select a Long Island real estate property near the coastal areas. You can choose from a dozen towns in Nassau and Suffolk Counties. All have a panoramic view. If you prefer suburban style, you can also select from homes that are within the suburbs. The country is home to winery farms, which means you can have a selection of properties with sceneries of grape yards.

Mild Climate

Long Island has a mild to moderate climate. January is the coldest while July is the warmest month. Temperatures seldom fall below 15 degrees Fahrenheit on winter months or rise above 95 degrees Fahrenheit during summer seasons. Throughout the year, the country experiences mild rainfall every month. The island is susceptible to hurricanes but the government has sufficient recovery plans against such calamities.

Despite the high property taxes, consider buying a Long Island real estate property as an investment. Living conditions are excellent in the country. You get to enjoy a mild climate, nice people, and security. It is one of the best places to retire and enjoy a quiet, suburban life.

Author Bio:
Corner Property, New Kitchen, New Bathroom, New Roof, New Siding, Central A/C. Central Heat. Great Location,74/100 Lot Size, Quiet Street, Close To Shopping Center, Major Highways in floral park. Li-realestatefinder here you get a lot.

Proper Use of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

maxresdefaultgIt is known that human chorionic gonadotropin, better known as HCG, is a hormone produced in the placenta of a pregnant woman. It supports the normal development of the embryo inside the mother’s womb. It also functions in releasing the egg during ovulation. Men are also treated with HCG in order to increase their sperm count. It can cause normal sexual development by releasing testosterone from the testes.

To treat infertility in both men and women, HCG is given as an injection in the skin or in the muscle. It is advised that this procedure be done by a physician or a healthcare expert to avoid any infection or complication. If the hormone is injected in the wrong place then side effects (such as blood clots, numbness, and severe headache) could be triggered. One should immediately consult a doctor if any of those symptoms manifest. In some cases, women experience Ovarian Hyper stimulation Syndrome or OHSS. This happens when hormones are excessively being produced, causing the ovary to be swollen. Swollen ovaries can cause excessive weight gain, shortness of breath, and vomiting.

In order to prevent complications in using HCG, men and women are advised to follow guidelines in the proper way of injecting it. Also, before using HCG, it is important to know if one has any allergic reactions. A doctor must first be consulted if a person has a disease like ovarian cyst, epilepsy, cancer, or any heart- and kidney-related problems. Using HCG under such circumstances can cause complications instead of bringing benefits. If one is already pregnant, then there is no need to take in the hormone since it can cause birth defects.

hcgThe human chorionic gonadotropin hormone can be self-injected if it is to be used on a regular basis. Doctors can prescribe the right amount and the number of times that it needs to be injected. Through this method, disposable needles are to be used only once and should be discarded in a puncture-proof container. Different brands of HCG are available in the pharmacy. Some are in powder form that needs to be mixed with a separate liquid. If this is to be used, the right amount of powder and liquid should be taken note of to avoid overdose. The instructions are usually included in the kit. If there are any changes in color, then the mixture should immediately be discarded. Unmixed HCG formulas should be stored in room temperature, keeping it away from both moisture and heat. Mixed formulas are to be kept in the refrigerator to avoid contamination.

A person using HCG injections should not miss a dose as prescribed by the doctor. Overdose is not expected to result in any life threatening situation, but it is still important to follow the dosage that was recommended.

There are a lot of approaches in taking HCG. Still, a 6-week long therapy of HCG treatment is most commonly advised. It can also be as long as a one year therapy – it all depends on the prescription of the doctor. Its dosage ranges from 500-1,000 IU of HCG, taken three times weekly for a period of three weeks. For long-term therapy, higher dosages are administered to the patient. These are just some of the usual methods that are used to treat infertility. It can always change depending on the medical condition and history of the patient.

Harmful effects of using human chorionic gonadotropin injections and medications can be prevented as long as one follows the correct dosage. It should always be accompanied by a healthy diet and regular exercise for the sake of maintaining a fit and healthy body.